Second Scientific Seminar - abstracts
Agent Based Manufacturing Execution System - Łukasz Huczała
Agents are entities organized into a hierarchical structure with a high-level of autonomy and cooperation based on the client–server structure with no fixed relations. Such a concept allows for high performance against disturbances through global optimization. The decision making is local and autonomous, without a global view of the system. For the expansibility of the system, the functioning of some agents can be modified or new agents can be added to the control system. The agent-based production planning approach can be applied for the optimization of time scheduling and/or resource allocation in various domains of the production. The planning mechanism and collaboration of the autonomous agents allows efficient resource management during the production of goods in many manufacturing processes. Based on the coordination between the planning and production agents, the efficiency of the production devices can be increased by calculating the workload and directing the most appropriate device in a specific product line.
Differences and various applications of advanced driver assistance systems - Sonja Wächter
The expectations that are placed on an automobile have changed continuously in recent years and have risen sharply. Nowadays in particular safety plays an enormous role, in addition to the performance and the comfort of a vehicle. With the expansion of infrastructures and the ever-evolving technology, also the technical possibilities in the field of automobile production have improved continuously. The protection of vehicle occupants and other persons involved in the road traffic has become essential. To this end, vehicles are equipped with numerous electronic components that should act as a warning for the driver and help to avoid mistakes and carelessness in the complex traffic. Known technical aids of this type are for example the parking assistance or the lane change assistant. Through various sensors the car's surroundings is checked for obstacles or other cars that are not always visible to the driver. A large number of different advanced driver assistance systems are available on the market, which differ in their operating principles. A rough classification can be performed in radar, infrared and camera sensors. These techniques are not only used in the automotive industry, but have plenty uses in many other areas. Each sensor has its advantages and disadvantages and is suitable for different application and use cases. To enable maximum benefit, a combination of several different sensors is required. A further development and creation of application possibilities is essential for the future.
Analysis of an energy consumed by production stand in work cycle - Marek Drewniak
Previous approaches to task of an energy consumed by production stand were limited to calculations of values for single production cycle or to observations in given period of time. Such observations allow to detect anomalies in consumption but do not point out the source of anomalies. For complex diagnosis (especially for detection of leakages in pneumatic systems) a knowledge of energy consumed by single end-point devices is necessary. Presented method allows for observation of consumption with highest possible accuracy (in view of active end-point devices). Calculated reference values can be then compared to real ones and be used for alarming in case of occurrence of anomaly. Aside from diagnostic purposes, results of analysis can also be used for modelling of production stand that is created in dedicated tool. An example of such environment is WinMod, which allows to emulate fully-working automation system. Along with simulation of work of end-point devices, an implementation of reference consumption is possible. Such application can be used for observation of influence of leakages from pneumatic system on global consumption of a station and on time of production cycle.
Industry data creation and storage problem. Concept proposal and analysis - Jakub Piekarz
Constantly increasing costs of production as well as the pressures on savings force companies to search a new ways of optimization. While the topic of energy efficiency has long been implemented, the problem of inheritance of the data is relatively fresh. With the help of the new standards like AML and software like WinMod it is possible to model real industry devices/lines in virtual way, to test them operation before any physical action take place. In comparison with the past, the present problem is not lack of information, but its excess. The task of the past was how to gather a data, nowadays we started to think which data is really needed, which one we should store or analyze in the future, and which one not. The more data we can measure and analyze the more we have to delete after it. The questions, in the world of learning by drawing conclusions from the past, are: Which data should be analyzed? Which data should be stored? How and for how long? With the first broad analysis of the problem from different angles we can propose
OPC UA – A Holistic Information Model Approach - Banerjee Suprateek
OPC UA is a SOA (service oriented architecture) based communication standard developed by the OPC Foundation, specifically for industrial applications, from factory floor devices to enterprise applications. The biggest advantage that OPC UA provides is its interoperability and flexibility in addition to the security considerations that it offers which are necessary for effective communication in an industrial automation environment. It provides the information in the form of an address space model. Data and information can be made available with the help of services outlined by the standard. The information exchange takes place in a client-server architecture where clients developed in accordance with the OPC UA standard communicate with OPC UA servers which hold data and information in a pre-defined address space. Other standards have been built on top of OPC UA so as to provide specific information about other various aspects of the automation pyramid. For instance the PLCopen standard is based on the world wide IEC 61131-3 programming standard, which specifies various programming languages and a software model which can be used to program control systems. Now the PLC program units can now be seen seamlessly in an OPC UA information model. Similarly other standards like ISA-95 which provides a standard manner to describe the flow of information between Manufacturing Operations Management (MOM) and Enterprise Resource Management (ERP) systems. Also standards like FDI (Field Device Integration) and Automation ML are such standards which provide standardization of various other aspects of Automation. The idea of the Uniform Information Model is to find out common overlaps between the various standards developed on top of the OPC UA standard so as to provide a holistic view of the entire system keeping the various overlaps in mind, thus providing an umbrella information model which is a union of all such different models.
ANSI/ISA95 as a flexible and LEAN standard for Manufacturing Execution Systems - Szymon Ziemek
Control systems have to provide a very detailed information that is related to an underlying production process. This information is further used by Business Intelligence systems, which are localized on the Enterprise level. A Manufacturing Execution System (MES) is a service-oriented interface that joins these two worlds. Lean Manufacturing means using less of everything when compared to mass production – half the manufacturing space, half the investment in tools, and half the engineering hours to develop a new product in half the time. The big challenge is to make the data "LEAN", but also to allow enterprises and customers to speak the same language, which means reducing the information exchange time and complexity for this process. In general, ISA-95 defines the common MES data structure and MES activities that are related to manufacturing operations: defining a product definition, production forecasting, managing production capability and evaluating production performances. ISA-95 consists of models and terminology and describes the information that is exchanged between systems for sales, finance and logistics with the systems for production, maintenance and quality. The biggest challenge is to understand the model, map the current process to the model and to implement it.